Acute allergic reactions (AAR) can develop at any age for the first time in life or repeatedly in response to contact with allergens (foreign protein substances that carry genetic information) as a protective immune response of one of four types of hypersensitivity. Foods are the most common cause of AAR (food allergy). In young children, food allergies are more common than in adults due to the high permeability of the intestinal wall and insufficient enzyme activity. AAR for food components usually manifests itself in early childhood, and the presence of specific antibodies in a patient can be detected in the blood or proven by skin tests. In clinical practice, children often have localized manifestations of both true and pseudo-allergic reactions in the form of skin rash, urticaria, Quincke's edema, toxicoderma, exacerbation of allergic dermatitis. Localized but life-threatening AAR includes laryngeal edema. Elimination of a causal allergen is extremely important. Symptomatic pharmacotherapy is the main treatment for patients with allergic reactions. In the period of acute manifestations, regular intake of antihistamines is prescribed.
Source: Bardenikova S.I., Snitko S.Yu., Dovgun O.B., Lobanova E.A., N.I. Drozdova N.I. Acute allergic reactions in children: focusing on provoking factors. Russian Medical Journal. 2019;1(*):1–7.